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AOR Maxi-Boz II Boswellia Serrata Research

Maxi Boz II (AOR)

DISCUSSION: Maxi•Boz II  is standardized Boswellia serrata extract, a botanical with a long historical usage in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for support in inflammatory conditions.

AOR Maxi-Boz II Boswellia Serrata Research

There are many medicinal plants of great therapeutic value referred to in the ancient treatment system of Ayurveda. One particular plant of much repute is resin of the tree Boswellia serrata (BSE), or Frankincense, which the Ayurved materia medica claimed to have potent anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic properties. Pharmacological properties include: Anti-inflammatory Activity Ethanolic extracts of the resin demonstrated reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema in normal rats and mice as well as in adrenalectomized rats. Further, extracts showed anti-arthritic activity in formaldehyde and adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats and BSA-induced arthritis in the rabbit. In addition, the researchers found the above extract to be more beneficial, less toxic and more potent than the standard drug of choice, Ketoprofen, a widely used prescriptive Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).

More recently, a number of researchers have identified the anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extracts of the resin to be due to Boswellic Acids, in particular the alpha and beta isomers. Recently, a more purified compound standardized for 65% Boswellic Acids has shown potent anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity without any of the adverse effects (e.g. gastro-intestinal, CNS and cardiovascular). A study including 70 patients suffering from osteoarthritis of the knee has demonstrated the positive effects of Boswellic acids in humans. These patients received either 100mg or 250mg of boswellic acid containing extract, or a placebo, daily for 90 days. Patients receiving either dose of boswellic acids demonstrated significant improvements in both pain and functional ability of the knee joint. Even more impressive is that patients receiving the 250mg dose showed these improvements as early as 7 days following the start of treatment and required other pain medication 72% less often than patients taking placebos.

The mechanism of action of Boswellic Acids is similar to the action of NSAIDs. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are two classes of arachidonic acid-derived mediators of inflammation. Leukotrienes, for which 5-lipooxygenase (5-LOx) is the key enzyme in synthesis, are considered to be involved in the initiation and maintenance of various inflammatory diseases, for example arthritis, Crohn`s disease, ulcerative colitis, asthma etc. Boswellic Acids are potent inhibitors of 5-lipooxygenase product, including 5-hydroxyeiconatetraenoic acid (5HETE), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), which cause: bronchoconstriction, chemotaxis, and increased vascular permeability.

Other anti-inflammatory plant constituents, such as quercetin, also block this enzyme, but they do so in a more general fashion, as an antioxidant, whereas Boswellia seems to be a specific inhibitor of 5-LOx. It is known that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can cause a disruption of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis that can accelerate the articular damage in arthritic conditions. A recent in-vivo study examined BSE and ketoprofen for their effects on glycosaminoglycan metabolism. BSE significantly reduced the degeneration of GAGs compared to controls, whereas ketoprofen caused a reduction in total tissue GAG content. Boswellic acids have also been shown to decrease the prevalence of matrix metalloproteinases in the synovial fluid. These enzymes are often over expressed in osteoarthritis patients, and have been implicated in the degredation of cartilage in the joints. In addition, Boswellic Acids inhibited antibody production, as well as infiltration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, thereby reducing inflammatory effect. In conclusion there is considerable research to support the highly beneficial properties of standardized Boswellic Acids in inflammatory conditions.

Anti-complement Activity BSE also demonstrated a marked inhibitory effect on both the classical and alternate complement systems. Analgesic Activity An investigation of BSE`s analgesic and psychopharmacologic effects noted that it "was found to exhibit marked sedative and analgesic effects" in animals. Inflammatory Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Leukotrienes are suggested to play a role in the inflammatory process of ulcerative colitis (UC). BSE 350mg three times a day was comparable to sulfasalazine (at 1g three times a day), a standard prescriptive drug in UC.

Other biological activities BSE has also been observed to inhibit human leukocyte elastase (HLE), which may be involved in the pathogenesis of emphysema. HLE also stimulates mucus secretion and thus may play a role in cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

References

i. Kimmatkar N, Thawani V, Hingorani L, Khiyani R. "Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee--a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial." Phytomedicine 2003 Jan; 10(1): 3-7.

ii. Gupta I, Gupta V, Parihar A, Gupta S, Ludtke R, Safayhi H, Ammon HP. "Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with bronchial asthma: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical study." Eur J Med Res 1998 Nov 17; 3(11): 511-4.

iii. Gupta I, Parihar A, Malhotra P, Singh GB, Ludtke R, Safayhi H, Ammon HP. "Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with ulcerative colitis." Eur J Med Res 1997 Jan; 2(1): 37-43.

iv. Sharma ML, Kaul A, Khajuria A, Singh S, Singh GB. "Immunomodulatory Activity of Boswellic Acids (Pentacyclic Triterpene Acids) from Boswellia serrata." Phytother Res. 1996 Mar; 10(2): 107-12.

v. Safayhi H, et al (1992) "Boswellic acids: novel, specific, non-redox inhibitors of 5-lipooxygenase". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther; 261: 1143.

vi. Ammon HP, Mack T, Singh GB, Safayhi H. (1991) "Inhibition of leukotriene B4 formation in rat peritoneal neutrophils by an ethanolic extract of the gum-resin exudate of Boswellia Serrata". Planta-Med; 57: 203.

vii. Reddy GK, et al (1988) "Effect of Salai guggal ex-Boswellia Serrata on cellular and humoral immune responses and leucocyte migration. "Agents and Action; 24: 161.

viii. Kulkarni RR, Patki PS, Jog VP, Gandage SG, Patwardhan B. (1991) "Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study". J. Ethanopharmacol; 33:91.

ix. 11th European Congress of Rheumatology Vol 5/8-2 Suppl. Issue 1987. ix. Atal CK, et al (1984) "Salai guggal a new NSAID and its probable mode of action" Recent advances in Mediators Inflammation and Anti inflammatory Agents. Symp. Nov 2-4.

x. Menon MK, Kar A. (1971) "Analgesic and Psychopharmacological effects of gum resin of Boswellia Serrata" Planta Medica; 19: 332-336.

xi. Reddy GK, Chandrakasan G, Dhar SC. (1981) "Studies on the metabolism of glycoaminoglycalls under the influence of new herbal anti-inflammatory agents". Biochemical Pharmacol., 38 3527 1989.

xii. Singh GB, Atal CK. (1990) "Pharmacology of an extract of Boswellia Serrata, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent". Agents Action; 18: 407-412.

xiii. Sengupta et al. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study of the efficacy and safety of 5-Loxin® for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Research and Therapy. 2008; 10: R85

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