DISCUSSION: Cardio•Mag 2.0 is true magnesium orotate. Magnesium and orotic acid exert complementary effects on the biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides, supporting the heart's ability to endure and recover from chronic and acute stressors through the maintenance of normal glycogen stores, protein synthesis, ATP levels, and contractile function. Research supports the ability of true magnesium orotate to support cardiac function. The magnesium orotate in AOR's Cardio•Mag 2.0 is fully-reacted, unlike most "magnesium orotate" products which are food-grade mixtures of orotic acid with inorganic magnesium salts.True Magnesium Orotate for Cardiovascular HealthAsk health-conscious people about the mineral most important to their heart health, and most will hit on magnesium right away. But few people look beyond the amount of elemental magnesium in their supplements to consider the importance of the other half of their magnesium supplement - the chelating amino acid or anion to which it's bound. For instance, the widely-used magnesium oxide has "extremely low" bioavailability (22.8%), making it more likely to cause diarrhea; and on top of this embarrassing side-effect, magnesium oxide is an antacid, which can impair digestion and nutrient absorption.But there's more to the effects of a magnesium supplement than its bioavailability. Because the "other half" of one magnesium supplement is extensively documented to have profound effects on cardiovascular health. That supplement is true, fully-reacted Magnesium Orotate.Magnesium Orotate is magnesium bound to orotic acid, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides (a building block of the "letters" of your DNA code, and of RNA, the messenger that delivers the instructions from the DNA to the cellular machinery that assembles cellular proteins based on DNA's commands). Although little known and underappreciated, decades of research and clinical trials have documented the powerful benefits of Magnesium Orotate to the weakened heart.Russian ResearchThe use of orotic acid and its mineral forms as metabolic therapy for cardiovascular patients began in the early 1960s in the former Soviet Union, where it was primarily used to provide support to patients with heart failure, particularly in cases of cardiomyopathy. Animal models had shown that heart failure increases the demand for RNA for the biosynthesis of proteins needed to repair the heart. So Soviet cardiologists reasoned that, since orotate is needed for biosynthesis of RNA precursors, supplemental orotate might speed the recovery of heart muscle function.Animal models provided early evidence to support the Russian scientists' expectations, showing that supplemental orotate increases cardiac glycogen, protein synthesis, and ATP levels (all depressed by infarction or heart failure), and improves cardiac contractile function following damage to the heart, without interfering with normal baseline function in healthy hearts. This evidence was enough to get Russian cardiologists going on clinical trials of mineral orotates in the 1960s, which clearly showed the benefits of orotate supplementation.Magnesium Orotate: the Synergistic Cardiovascular SupplementIn the early days, research was conducted on a variety of mineral orotates, such as calcium orotate and potassium orotate. It was only later that researchers picked up on the unique advantage of combining orotate with magnesium to create one unique cardiovascular health supplement: Magnesium Orotate. This combination not only takes advantage of magnesium as a heart-health supplement in its own right: the magnesium in Magnesium Orotate is a key cofactor for the very enzyme that uses orotate to biosynthesize the RNA precursors (pyrimidine nucleotides) through which orotate strengthens and restores heart cells under stress.Trials Confirm the Power of Magnesium OrotateGaita and coworkers performed a randomized, controlled trial in 32 congestive heart patients who had recently undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Within two days of surgery, each participant received either a 2000 mg Magnesium Orotate supplement or a placebo dummy pill as an add-on to their standard heart medication. Eight weeks later, Magnesium Orotate users experienced functional improvements on a wide range of heart function parameters in comparison with those taking the placebo, including exercise times, angina-free walking distance, and VO2max; most notably, they enjoyed a 63% lower risk of suffering extrasystoles ("extra" heartbeats, felt as "missed" beats or "flip-flops" in the chest).A second controlled trial compared the effects of 3000 mg Magnesium Orotate with standard control treatment in 84 people suffering with mitral valve prolapse. The results: a "6-month therapy with [Magnesium Orotate] completely or partially reduced the symptoms in more than half the patients. Positive changes were registered primarily in clinicofunctional manifestations."In a third study, fourteen coronary heart disease patients with left ventricular dysfunction who were undergoing an exercise therapy program, took either Magnesium Orotate (3000 mg) or placebo pills as an add-on to their existing medications for four weeks. Compared with the placebo group, users of Magnesium Orotate enjoyed greater improvements in exercise times and in the emptying and filling of the left ventricle.In the most recent study, Magnesium Orotate was used as a central part of a "Metabolic Physical and Mental (MPM) Program," a whole-lifestyle intervention involving an exercise (Physical) component, stress reduction (Mental), and Metabolic supplement use (1200 mg Magnesium Orotate along with coenzyme Q10, lipoic acid, and omega-3 fatty acids. In this historically-controlled trial, the MPM program was compared to previous cases given standard care in 11 elderly people scheduled for cardiac surgery. Even in the two week period between starting the trial and going under the knife, Magnesium Orotate users undergoing the MPM improved their overall quality of life. And one month after surgery the benefits became striking. As part of the MPM, using Magnesium Orotate led to a full 50% jump in physical quality of life, while mental quality of life also got 24% better. By contrast, scores on all of these parameters had gotten worse during the same periods in the historical control group. Meanwhile, malondialdehyde (a marker of lipid peroxidation and thus of free radical stress) plunged 45%.Other clinical trials have documented the effectiveness of Magnesium Orotate supplements in delivering improved quality of life in elderly patients with stable angina; in supporting exercise and a salt-restricted diet to reduce blood pressure, eliminate heart palpitations, and improve sleep quality in child hypertensives; and in improving the flexibility of blood vessels and reducing anginal pains in patients with arteriosclerosis or inflammatory vessel disorders. And in a recent double-blind, randomized controlled trial, Magnesium Orotate supplementation has also been found to simultaneously improve physical performance, and reduce some of the punishing negative impacts of extreme physical exercise, in triathletes.A Remarkable Safety RecordMagnesium Orotate has been documented to be an extremely safe supplement. A 1998 review of studies on Magnesium Orotate states that "No adverse effects arising from [orotic acid] administration in humans have been reported". Even diarrhea - the most commonly-reported side effect of mg supplements - appears to be extremely rare in Magnesium Orotateusers: there has only been one trial of Magnesium Orotate reporting any diarrhea, and this was unusual anddid not lead to anyone quitting their Magnesium Orotate use.While animal experiments once suggested that high-dose orotate supplements might harm the liver, this turned out to be a quirk of the unusual metabolism of the rat, which doesn't apply in other species. Quite the contrary, in fact: orotate and its salts have been used as a treatment for a variety of liver disorders in humans.Probably the best evidence of the safety of high-dose orotate supplements are the many trials in which they have been safely used without side effects in vulnerable population groups, such as children with hypertension or liver and bile duct disorders, as well as pregnant women and even infants with jaundice.What's Out There ... and WhyWith all of the decades of research backing the benefits of Magnesium Orotate, why is it not more widely available? In part, it's because the research is so new to the West. And if you don't know about the specific benefits of the orotic acid that's so critical to the actions of a Magnesium Orotate supplement, and think that the heart-health benefits of a magnesium supplement come entirely from the magnesium itself, then you might easily think that Magnesium Orotate is "just another magnesium supplement" on a shelf full of other, cheaper, and lower-pill-count alternatives.And Magnesium Orotate is a bulky supplement. The orotic acid ligand in Magnesium Orotate is a big molecule, so when magnesium is bound to it, the final complex is only about 6.5% elemental magnesium by weight. But to compare Magnesium Orotate to other magnesium supplements on a simple milligram-for-milligram basis is misleading, because Magnesium Orotate is not just a magnesium supplement: its cardiovascular benefit derives from the orotic acid as much as it does from the magnesium itself. And you don't need a whole RDA's worth of elemental magnesium to enjoy its effects: the many clinical trials on Magnesium Orotate clearly document that the cardiovascular benefits from Magnesium Orotate are achieved at doses of 200 mg of elemental magnesium or less.Once you know about the superior cardiovascular benefits of Magnesium Orotate, however, you still have the problem of locating the real thing. The fact is that the great majority of the "Magnesium Orotate" on the market is not fully-reacted, pure Magnesium Orotate, but a "blend" or "complex," mostly made up of magnesium oxide. These products look attractive, because they claim to provide this desirable form of the mineral, yet are cheap and contain a high amount of elemental magnesium per tablet - but that's only because the Magnesium Orotate in these supplements is "cut" with cheaper, denser forms of the mineral.To be sure that you're getting the real thing, compare the amount of elemental magnesium listed on the label with the amount of orotic acid. True, fully-reacted Magnesium Orotate contains nearly 15 times as much orotic acid as magnesium by weight. If the label isn't clear on this point, you can't be sure of what you're getting. Then, be prepared for the small added cost of genuine Magnesium Orotate, and the need to fit an extra capsule or two into your pill box. These minor inconveniences will pay major dividends in the health of your heart.Authentic Magnesium Orotate is a supplement with solid, proven benefits in supporting the health of the heart and in restoring performance and quality of life in people whose hearts have been challenged. If you - or someone you love - have a history of, or a risk for, a stay in a real "Heartbreak Hotel," you owe it to yourself to look seriously into this powerful nutritional combination.ReferencesStepura OB, Tomaeva FE, Zvereva TV. Orotic acid as a metabolic agent. Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2002; (2): 39-41.Geiss KR, Stergiou N, Jester, Neuenfeld HU, Jester HG. Effects of magnesium orotate on exercise tolerance in patients with coronary heart disease. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1998 Sep; 12 Suppl 2:153-6.Gaita D, Branea I, Dragulescu SI, et al. Benefit of treatment with magnesium orotate in patients with chronic heart failure in early postoperative period after coronary artery by-pass grafting. Gavan N. Hjertforum. 2001 Aug; 14(3): 78.Nieper HA. Capillarographic criteria on the effect of magnesium orotate, EPL substances and clofibrate on the elasticity of blood vessels. Agressologie. 1974; 15(1): 73-7.Rosenfeldt F, Miller F, Nagley P, et al. Response of the senescent heart to stress: clinical therapeutic strategies and quest for mitochondrial predictors of biological age. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Jun; 1019:78-84.
Cardio Mag 2.0 (AOR)