Goldenseal(Hydrastis canadensis; 200 mg/ml)• used to promote healthy mucus membranes in the case of inflamed sore throats and sinuses• used to help alleviate infectious and inflammatory conditions of the digestive tractGolden Seal is the most effective botanical treatment for acute bacterial infection.As widely published herbal botanist James Duke points out, “American Indians used goldenseal to treat all manner of infections, and white settlers adopted it because it works. It turns out that goldenseal has two broad-spectrum antimicrobial constituents, hydrastine and berberine.”In his monograph on goldenseal, leading herbalist David Hoffmann explains that it is “one of our most useful remedies, and owes much of its value to its tonic effects on mucous membranes. This probably accounts for its effectiveness in digestive problems, from peptic ulcers to colitis. The alkaloids it contains stimulate bile production and secretion, and this bitter stimulant activity makes it useful for loss of appetite. Goldenseal is effective in catarrhal conditions, especially sinus disorders. The herb’s pharmacological activity, including its antimicrobial properties, is usually attributed to the isoquinoline alkaloid constituents, primarily hydrastine and berberine. Berberine has immunostimulant, antispasmodic, sedative, hypotensive, uterotonic, cholerectic, and carminative actions.”Herbal expert Michael Castleman points out that, “The berberine in goldenseal kills many of the bacteria that cause diarrhea… In one study, 165 adults with diarrhea resulting from either E. coli or cholera were given either medically inactive placebos or 400-milligram oral doses of berberine. After 24 hours, among those with E. coli diarrhea, 43 percent of the berberine group were cured, compared with just 20 percent of the placebo group. Among those with cholera, berberine also produced significant benefit. These results support goldenseal’s long history as a treatment for infectious diarrhea. Goldenseal has also shown benefit against the protozoa that causes amoebic dysentery… and giardiasis.” Castleman remarks too that, “In addition to killing germs, some research shows that berberine boosts the immune system by revving up macrophages, the white blood cells that devour disease-causing microorganisms.”Prominent naturopathic physician William A. Mitchell Jr. adds that, “This famous plant contains antimicrobial alkaloids that are effective against many staphylococcal and streptococcal organisms as well… The list goes on and on… For example, Hydrastis kills group A streptococci very effectively. Even when treating streptococcal infections with antibiotics, I include Hydrastis in the treatment program.”Administration:15-35 drops (0.5-1.2ml), three to four times daily, in a mouthful of water, on an empty stomach.